University College London
Nissan Leaf Colour Map (262.55 MB)

Raw data and Original Code for Generating Ultrasonic Acoustic Mapping Figure

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posted on 2023-10-10, 15:35 authored by Arthur FordhamArthur Fordham, Rhodri OwenRhodri Owen, Rhodri JervisRhodri Jervis



The item published is a dataset that provides the raw data and original code to generate Figure 4 in the research paper, Correlative non-destructive techniques to investigate ageing and orientation effects in automotive Li-ion pouch cells, of which I am first author. The measurements and following data analysis took place between January 2022 – November 2022.

The figure illustrates the ultrasonic mapping measurements of pouch cells that have been extracted from electric vehicles and have been aged in real-world conditions. The degradation of the cells was measured using four different complementary characterisation measurement techniques, one of which was ultrasonic mapping. 

The ultrasonic mapping measurements were performed using an Olympus Focus PX phased-array instrument (Olympus Corp., Japan) with a 5 MHz 1D linear phased array probe consisting of 64 transducers. The transducer had an active aperture of 64 mm with an element pitch (centre-to-centre distance between elements) of 1 mm. The cell was covered with ultrasonic couplant (Fannin UK Ltd.), prior to every scan to ensure good acoustic transmission. The transducer was moved along the length of each cell at a fixed pressure using an Olympus GLIDER 2-axis encoded scanner with the step size set at 1 mm to give a resolution of ca. 1 mm2. Due to the large size of the cells, the active aperture of the probe was wide enough to cover 1/3 the width, meaning that three measurements for each cell were taken and the data was combined to form the colour maps. 

Data from the ultrasonic signals were analysed using FocusPC software. The waveforms recorded by the transducer were exported and plotted using custom Python code to compare how the signal changes at different points in the cell. For consistency, a specific ToF range was selected for all cells, chosen because it is where the part of the waveform, known as the ‘echo-peak’, is located.74 The echo-peak is useful to monitor as it is where the waveform has travelled the whole way through the cell and reflected from the back surface, so characterising the entire cell. The maximum amplitude of the ultrasonic signal within this ToF range, at each point, are combined to produce a colour map. The signal amplitude is a percentage proportion of 100 where 100 is the maximum intensity of the signal, meaning that the signal has been attenuated the least as it travels through the cell, and 0 is the minimum intensity. The intensity is absolute and not normalised across all scans, meaning that an amplitude values on different cells can be directly compared. The Pristine cell is a second-generation Nissan Leaf pouch, different to the first-generation aged cells of varying orientation. The authors were not able to acquire an identical first-generation pristine Nissan Leaf cell. Nonetheless, it was expected that the Pristine cell would contain a uniform internal structure regardless of the specific chemistry and this would be identified in an ultrasound map consisting of a single colour (or narrow colour range).


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